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Project Management

Project Management
IND-ProjMMA-assn-wk10 – the second part of the MMA project case study from the textbook and my added material – Begin the MMA project work described on pages 151-152 and 178 and 218-
219. As always, answer all questions in as much detail as possible and include source cites and include revisions from your prior group work based upon my comments. Some of the questions for
the MMA project overlap from chapter to chapter because they are giving you the opportunity to modify or add more detail to previous work – just answer each question once. Note that you
will be using MS Project as part of the work. You will have a .MPP file and a .DOC file created for this assignment. The MPP file should have the tasks and subtasks entered and the tasks should
have predecessor – successor relationships. Resources should be entered and then assigned to the tasks. If you have not read the help for MS Project in the week 1 Module area – do so now – the
one file has links to very helpful step by step instructions.
Hello. As part of the work for part 2 of the MMA project work due in week 10 (answering questions in the textbook as was done for MMA part 1) you are required to create a MS Project file. The
MS Project file should have the WBS entered in the Gantt sheet view and resources should be entered and assigned. There were also links to MS Project help files earlier in the course that you
could use for help in learning MS Project before week 10.
There has been a second new file added to the week 5 content area today. Once again it was too large to email. It is based upon the Husky example in your textbook. There is a Husky project
and the MMA project that are next to each other throughout the textbook – both projects have the exact same questions that must be answered. The new uploaded MS Project file is a good
example of how to complete the WBS work involved as part of the Husky part 2 questions which are the same as the MMA part 2 questions. The Husky example file uploaded to the week 5
content area will help you to answer the exact same WBS questions for MMA part 2 due in week 10. Your MS Project file (MPP file) will not be as large or detailed as the for Husky because the MMA
project is much less complex than the Husky project. The uploaded MS Project file is in MS Project 2013 format – you may need to download a viewer from Microsoft if you have an earlier version.
TEXT BOOK USED AS WELL QUESTIONS CAME FROM THE SAME TEXT BOOK:
Marchewka, J. T. (2012). Information Technology Project Management (4 ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
1) MMA PROJECT (Pages 151-154)
The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)—School Management System (Pages 151-154)
Deliverable: The Scope Management Plan
In this assignment, you will define the scope of the project and define how the project scope will be managed. The project’s scope defines the project work. It includes the work boundaries and
deliverables that you will deliver to your client. The scope of the project must support the MOV and will be the basis for the project plan.
Please provide a professional-looking document that includes the following:
1. Project name, project team name, and the names of the members of your project team.
2. A brief project description.
3. The project’s MOV. (This should be revised or refined if necessary.)
4. A Deliverable Structure Chart (DSC). This should be based on the project life cycle and the systems development life cycle. You should begin by creating a hierarchical chart that defines all of
the project and system development phases. The system development phases will depend largely on the development approach you use (waterfall, rapid applications development, etc.) and
whether you will build a custom database management system or install an existing software package. After you have identified all project phases, the next step in developing a DSC is to
identify at least one project or product deliverable for each phase.
5. A use case diagram (UCD). A UCD defines the high-level features and functionality that the application system should include. If you are building a custom database management system, this is
where you will define all of the features and functionality of the system. On the other hand, if you proposed an existing software package, your UCD will detail all of the features and
functionality of that system. Although Figure 5.5 in the text provides an example of a use case, you can build one by:
a. Drawing a box to represent the system boundary.
b. Drawing stick figures to represent the actors of the system. Actors can be users, managers, customers, or even other systems that will interact with or use the application system. Actors
should be drawn on the outside of the system boundary. Be sure to label each actor with a descriptive name to describe the actor’s role.
c. Drawing an oval inside the system boundary for each system feature or function and label the oval with a descriptive name. A use case is a particular function that the application system will
perform. Examples of use cases are: update customer information, print employee overtime report, create new vendor record, and so forth. This important step during your project necessitates
a great deal of interaction with your client. Unfortunately, you will not have access to a real client, so you can be creative. Keep in mind, that features and functionality of the system should
help MAA achieve its MOV.
d. Draw a connecting line to identify the actors who will make use of a particular use case.
6. A scope change process. Together, the DSC and UCD define what will and what will not be part the project scope. In short, the project team is responsible for delivering everything that is
listed in the DSC and UCD. Unfortunately, items may be overlooked and often needs will change. Adding deliverables or functionality to the system is an important decision. Therefore, develop a
logical process that your client and team will follow for identifying, cataloging, managing, and responding to a scope change request. Be sure to include templates or examples of any forms or
logs that will be used to support the scope change process.
Case Studies
Just Say No?
Many project managers agree that “half-baked” or “hare-brained” ideas becoming projects and excessive scope creep are two key causes of challenged and failed projects. And a half-baked idea
that turns into a project with excessive scope creep can be a nightmare for the project manager and team.
Top management is often under pressure to develop new and innovative products and services that move the organization toward profitability and competitive leadership. However, many times
these ideas include a number of less than stellar ideas that get turned into projects. This can occur as a result of “management by magazine,” when a manager reads an article and forms a new
vision. Unfortunately, many project managers fail to object because the organization may have a culture where such things aren’t questioned or a belief that senior management could never be
wrong.
Moreover, scope creep can be a key challenge, especially when the customer or sponsor has unreasonable or unrealistic expectations. Many project managers may feel they don’t have the
ability, experience, or power to just say no. Their only option may be to do as they’re told and comply begrudgingly even though they know that the likelihood of their project’s success is
small.
Gopal Kapur believes that this is where the idea of intelligent disobedience can come into play. Intelligent disobedience is a quality taught to guide dogs for the blind. For example, a blind
person may initiate the move to cross a busy street by giving a signal to the guide dog to move forward. If traffic blocks the crosswalk, the guide dog will disobey the command. This failure to
comply with an unsafe command is intelligent disobedience, and the dog owner must learn to trust the guide dog.
A project manager can apply the concept of intelligent disobedience by saying no to demands that can be detrimental to the project or the organization. This, however, requires trust and
empowerment, as well as the project manager’s ability to read the danger signals when a project is a half-baked idea or when scope creep becomes excessive. On the other hand, the project
sponsor or customer must trust and respect the project manager’s judgment.
1. What determines whether a project manager will react with intelligent disobedience or begrudging compliance?
2. How can half-baked ideas that turn into projects and excessive scope creep be minimized?
3. The vice president of marketing read an article on a plane that interactive marketing on the World Wide Web is the hottest trend. Subsequently, she believes that your organization should
develop an interactive marketing Web site or else your organization will be at a competitive disadvantage. After meeting with her, you find that this is really more of a half-baked idea than a
real project. She also says not to worry, that “We’ll firm up the project as we go along.” If you were asked to be the project manager, how would you handle this situation?
SOURCE: Adapted from Gopal K. Kapur, Intelligent Disobedience, Computerworld, August 30, 2004.
The Vasa
The Vasa was a Swedish warship built in 1628 for King Gustavus Adolphus. On her maiden voyage, the ship floundered and keeled over in a light wind after sailing less than a nautical mile. Wives
and children of the 125 crew were invited to take part in the festivities; however, around 50 perished in the tragedy.
In the 17th century, Sweden rose to become one of the most powerful states in the Balkan Sea. Gustavus Adolphus became Sweden’s king at the age of 17 in 1611 and was considered a born
leader of great intellect and bravery. A decade later, Sweden was involved with a war with Poland, and looking at the possibility of war with Germany. This required a strong navy, but several
setbacks during the 1620s weakened Sweden’s military dominance: a Swedish squadron of 10 shops ran aground in 1625 and was wrecked by a bitter storm while two large warships were
outmaneuvered by the Polish navy and defeated in 1627; in 1628, three more ships were lost within a month.
In January 1625, the king ordered Admiral Fleming to sign a contract with Henrik Hybertson and his brother Arend to build four ships, two smaller ones with keels of 108 feet (33 m) and two larger
ones of 135 feet (41 m). After losing the 10 ships in a storm, the king sent a concerned letter to Admiral Fleming instructing him to tell Henrik Hybertson that the schedule for the two smaller
ships must be expedited. The king also requested that these ships have 120 foot (37 m) keels and include two enclosed gun decks so that they could carry more armament. This presented a
dilemma for Hybertson because the timber had already been cut for the specifications outlined in the contract for one smaller ship and one larger ship. Moreover, no one had built a ship with
two gun decks before. Hybertson tried to convince the king to follow the original specifications, but the king demanded that the ships be built according to his new measurements. Master
Shipwright Hybertson soon became ill in 1625 and died in the spring of 1627, never seeing the Vasa completed. The project was handed over to Hybertson’s assistant, Hein Jacobsson, who had
very little management experience and no detailed records or plans from which to work.
In 1628, Admiral Fleming ordered a test of the Vasa’s stability. This consisted of having 30 sailors running from one side of the ship to the other to assess how the ship would rock. The test was
aborted only after three runs; otherwise the ship would have keeled over. The two shipbuilders, Jacobsson and his assistant Johan Isbrandsson, were not present for the test. A member of the
crew was heard to make a remark about the ship’s instability, but the admiral replied that “The master shipbuilder surely has built ships before, so there is no need to have worries of that kind.”
No doubt the admiral, captain, and crew had wished the king were present, but he was fighting in Poland and sending a stream of messages instructing that the ship be launched immediately.
During the stability test, the ship’s armament was being produced and artists were working feverishly to complete the decorations. The number and types of armaments to be carried by the
redesigned Vasa went through a number of revisions as well. The original design called for 32 24-pound guns, but the 135-foot version was to carry 36 24-pound guns, 24 12-pound guns, eight 48-
pound mortars, and 10 smaller guns. After further revisions, the king finally ordered the Vasa to carry 64 24-pound guns (32 on each deck) and as many as 60 24-pound guns. The idea was to arm
the Vasa with powerful guns and a high stern that could act as a firing platform in boarding actions for the 300 soldiers the ship was to carry.
Moreover, it was customary for warships to be decorated ornately with hundreds of gilded and painted sculptures of Biblical, mythical, and historical themes to glorify the authority and power
of the king and to frighten or taunt the enemy. The 500 sculptures added considerably to the effort and cost of the ship as well as raising the ship’s center of gravity and contributing to its
instability. During this period, no methods for calculating the ship’s center of gravity, heeling characteristics, and stability existed, so shipbuilders and captains had to design and learn how a
ship handled through trial and error.
On August 10, 1628 Captain Sofring Hansson ordered the Vasa to set sail on its maiden voyage. The wind was relatively calm with only a light breeze from the south-west. The gun ports were
open so that a salute could be fired as the ship left her shipyard in Stockholm. Suddently, a gust of wind filled her sails and the ship heeled to port. The ship slowly righted herself, but another
gust pushed the ship again to her port side where water began to flow through her open gun ports. The Vasa heeled even further, until she sank in about 100 feet of water not far from shore. The
ship sank in front of hundreds or even thousands of people who had come to see the ship sail on her first voyage. Survivors clung to debris while many boats rushed to their aid. Despite heroics
and the short distance to shore, records indicate that as many as 50 people perished with the ship.
The king was notified of the Vasa’s fate by letter. He wrote a reply that “imprudence and negligence” must have been the cause and that the guilty parties would be punished. Captain Hansson
survived and was imprisoned immediately to await trial. The captain and crew were interrogated regarding the handling of the ship as well as the sobriety of the captain and crew. Crew
members and contractors blamed each other and everyone swore that they had done their job without fault. When asked why the ship was built to be so narrow and so unstable, the shipwright
Jacobsson said that he had simply followed orders as directed by the long dead and buried Henrik Hybertsson, who had followed the king’s orders. In the end, no one was sent to prison or found
guilty of negligence. The disaster was explained as an act of God, but the sinking of the Vasa ended up being a major economic disaster for a small country.
1. What were some of the major problems associated with this project?
2. What lessons can we learn from the sinking of Vasa that can be applied to IT projects?
SOURCE: Vasa (ship) Wikipedia.com; Richard E. Fairley and Mary Jane Willshire, Why the Vasa Sank: 10 Problems and Some Antidotes for Software Projects, IEEE Software, March/April 2003, 18–25.
2) MMA PROJECT (Page 178)
The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)—School Management System (MMA PROJECT (Pages 178)
Deliverable: The Work Breakdown Structure
Now that you have defined the project’s scope, it’s time to start the process of determining how the work will be accomplished. This will require that you draw upon work you did in several
previous assignments.
Note: This case assignment will require you to use Microsoft Project®, a popular project management software tool. You should work through the Microsoft Project® Tutorial 1: Creating the
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) at the end of this chapter before beginning this case assignment.
Please provide a professional-looking document that includes the following:
1. Project name, project team name, and the names of the members of your project team.
2. A brief project description.
3. The project’s MOV. (This should be revised or refined if necessary.)
4. The phases of your project. Using Microsoft Project®, list all of the project life cycle and systems development life cycle phases and the associated deliverables that you defined in the Project
Scope assignment.
5. Milestones for each phase and deliverable. Achieving a milestone will tell everyone associated with the project that the phase or deliverable was completed satisfactorily.
6. Activities/Tasks. Define a set of activities or tasks that must be completed to produce each deliverable. At this time, just list the tasks for your project. You will link these tasks to create a
project network in the next assignment.
7. Resource Assignments. Based on the project infrastructure that you developed, assign people to each activity. Keep in mind that adding resources to an activity may allow the activity to be
completed in a shorter amount of time; however, it may increase the cost of completing that task or activity.
8. Estimates for Each Activity/Task. Based on the tasks or activities and the resources assigned, develop a time estimate for each task or activity to be completed. For the purposes of this
assignment, you should use a combination of estimation techniques such as time-boxing and bottom-up estimation.
(MMA PROJECT (Pages 218-219)
The Martial Arts Academy (MAA)—school Management System (MMA PROJECT (Pages 218-219)
Deliverable: The Project Schedule and Budget
Now that you developed the work breakdown structure, it’s time to start the process of determining how the work will be accomplished. This will require that you draw upon work you did in
several previous assignments.
NOTE: This case assignment will require you to use Microsoft Project®, a popular project management software tool. You should work through the Microsoft Project® Tutorial 2 before beginning
this case assignment. You will also be working with the work breakdown structure that you developed in the previous case assignment so before you begin, be sure to make a backup copy of
your original WBS.
Please provide a professional-looking document that includes the following:
1. Project name, project team name, and the names of the members of your project team.
2. A brief project description.
3. The project’s MOV. (This should be revised or refined if necessary.)
4. A detailed project plan.
a. Using the work breakdown structure that you created in the previous assignment, assign a cost for each resource based on the project infrastructure that you developed in a previous
assignment.
b. Link the tasks. Look for opportunities for shortening the project schedule by performing tasks in parallel (i.e., start-to-start or finish-to-finish).
5. Answer the following questions:
a. What are beginning and end dates for your project? How many days will it take to complete the project?
b. Does your project have a single critical path or multiple critical paths? What is the importance of the critical path?
c. Does your project have any over allocated resources? If so, be sure to level your resources.
d. Depending on what your instructor tells you, submit your project plan on disk or electronically.
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